Teaching a Neural Network about Chemical Reactivity
Prof. Olexandr Isayev
Interatomic potentials derived with Machine Learning algorithms such as Deep-Neural Networks (DNNs), achieve the accuracy of high-fidelity quantum mechanical (QM) methods in areas traditionally dominated by empirical force fields and allow performing massive simulations. Most DNN potentials were parametrized for neutral molecules or closed-shell ions due to architectural limitations. In this work, we propose an improved machine learning framework for simulating open-shell anions and cations. We introduce the AIMNet-NSE (Neural Spin Equilibration) architecture, which can predict molecular energies for an arbitrary combination of molecular charge and spin multiplicity with errors of about 2–3 kcal/mol and spin-charges with errors ~0.01e for small and medium-sized organic molecules, compared to the reference QM simulations. The AIMNet-NSE model allows to fully bypass QM calculations and derive the ionization potential, electron affinity, and conceptual Density Functional Theory quantities like electronegativity, hardness, and condensed Fukui functions. We show that these descriptors, along with learned atomic representations, could be used to model chemical reactivity through an example of regioselectivity in electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions.